Stress reigns supreme in present-day world and humans are ready to give anything to overcome it. They don’t mind spending thousands of rupees for a relaxing spa, long for an annual holiday in a five-star holiday resort after working their ass off during the rest of the year or don’t mind shelling out money for a rejuvenating yoga or meditation session in the foothills of the Himalayas. Some others succumb to comfort eating or binge eating to address stress which can lead to multiple health issues including obesity and overweight problems. Stress is a complex physiological state that includes a range of physiological and behavioural processes that occur when there is a real or perceived threat to homeostasis. Stress is often related to work pressure, economic crunches, family problems, increased responsibilities and other such cases that can impact several aspects of life including physical, behavioural and psychiatric manifestations. Getting a new job is satisfactory but the pressure to scale great heights brings on stress; admission into a reputed college is exciting but accommodating to the new routine, hostel life and academic workload, especially for medical students, causes sleep deprivation, stress and drastic modifications in eating habits. Changes in eating habits that include unhealthy food practices increase the risk of chronic diseases. But stress indeed increases the consumption of high-fat and processed foods that are high in sodium levels too. But why? That’s mainly because of the release of cortisol hormones that increase the intake of high fat foods to overcome stress. An animal study found rewarding properties of sugary foods on providing stress relief and also the fact that long-term intake of dietary fats and their removal thereon can promote stress-related outcomes. Yet another study found that high-stressed women opted for high-fat food compared to low-stressed women.
Impact of Low Stress Levels on Lower Fat & Sodium Intake
Adolescents and youngsters generally are in the habit of consuming more processed foods compared to other groups of people. These are also the category of individuals who love to live a sedentary lifestyle. The young adult population around the world which includes the North American population too ingest more fat and sodium that’s above proclaimed health limits. Health Canada postulates that 25% of males and 23% of females above the age of 19 consume fat above recommended levels. Also, 99% of males and 73% of females aged 19-30 years consume more than the maximum permitted levels of 2300 mg of sodium per day. It is not something new that this population enjoys eating processed foods as it is tasty, convenient and easy but studies behind increased intake of such foods also show that stress increases poor eating behaviour especially among the young adult population. While most studies showed an association between increased stress and increased intake of fat- and sodium-rich foods there are also a few studies that show that increased stress causes decreased intake of such foods. Hence, self-efficiency exists as an important factor to consider when it comes to stress and food intake. Self-efficacy is the ability of the individual to manage a demand in the presence of obstacles. Lower levels of stress result in greater self-efficacy among individuals. Various studies have led to different conclusions with regard to stress, nutrient intake and self-efficacy that are not constrained to food intake behaviour and only one study has assessed the role of diet self-efficacy in the relationship between stress and food intake. This study showed that women reported lower diet self-efficacy and greater levels of stress compared to men and, obese individuals had lower self-efficacy compared to normal-weighted participants. The study below helps us understand the role of stress on fat and salt intake and how self-efficacy alters this in young adults.
A 15-item questionnaire was used to mark down values relating to demographic information of participants such as age, sex, height, weight, etc. A 20-item diet self-efficacy questionnaire tested his/her ability to refrain from high-fat and high-sodium foods despite such items being present in front of the participant on a scale of 0-100. Another 10-item questionnaire helped measuring self-efficacy on a score of 0-40. Stress was measured with a potential score of 56 using a 14-item self-report questionnaire. A 17-item questionnaire evaluated an individual’s fat intake over a 1-month period and a 28-item questionnaire evaluated an individual’s sodium intake over a 1-month period. 130 (19 males and 111 females) individuals participated in the study and the participants were undergraduate students from the Ryerson University in Toronto. The average age of participants was 20.62 years and 85% of them were females. Results showed that:
Relationship between Stress & Fat Intake in Medical Students
Doctors are saviours of our lives and medical students face increased levels of psychological distress compared to other groups of students due to reasons such as academic pressure, sleep deprivation and workload. A cross-sectional study was conducted in undergraduate students who were asked to self-report on the amount of fat intake. There were 15 questions probing on the eating habits of the participants over the past year with a list of foods high in fat content. Every question had 5 options (less than once per month, 2-3 times per month, 1-2 times per week, 3-4 times per week and ≥5 times per week) scored from 0 to 4 points. Total score was calculated by adding individual responses and then splitting them into two categories-low fat intake (<25 points) and high fat intake (>25 points). Participants with ≥27 points were considered to consume a diet with very high fat content. 14 items evaluated the perception of stress during the last month with 5 options of response for each question-never, almost never, sometimes, fairly often and very often. Score ranges were from 0 to 56 with higher score ranges indicating higher levels of perceived stress.
A total of 523 students (272 of them were females) with a mean age of 19 years participated in the study and their overall mean level of perceived stress was 25.9-18.8 in the low group and 26.7 in the high stress group.
42.4% participants displayed high fat intake and 30.4% reported very high fat intake-males (47.4%) ate more fatty foods than females and younger (62.9%) participants consumed more high-fat food comparatively. The proportion of subjects consuming more fatty food was predominant among those in the highest tertile of stress category (53.2%) compared to those in the middle tertile (46.3%) and lowest tertile (28%). This study shows that increased stress levels was associated with higher fat intake and more than 40% students reported high fat consumption.
A Survey of Diet Self-efficacy & Food Intake in Students with High & Low Perceived Stress: https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12937-015-0026-z
Perceived Stress & High Fat Intake: A Study in a Sample of Undergraduate Students: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0192827
If you consider nuts as yet another calorie-rich junk food then there is no harm in saying that you have gone nuts over your dietary intake! If you ponder, nuts are an excellent source of proteins, healthy fats, dietary fiber, minerals and vitamins that add good health and nutrient benefits. In-depth analysis of various cohort studies shows us that frequent nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of developing hypertension,
cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and all-cause mortality. It’s no news that CVD exists as one of the topmost causes of death globally and our current lifestyle remains as the number one reason. Individuals affected by CAD receive medications to protect them against recurring cardiac events alongside lifestyle changes too that include regular physical activity, a low-fat plant-rich diet and quitting smoking. But rather than making such lifestyle changes after being affected by heart-relate health issues isn’t it clever to prevent them in the first place with proper dietary routines and physical activities?
Men have been in love with meat as theoretically they assume that meat defines masculinity and this might also be the reason that we don’t find many of them sitting down with a bowl of green salad for their meal too. But in recent years, we have seen a shift in dietary recommendation from plant-based foods to animal-based foods as this helps in the prevention of chronic diseases. These plant-based diets have nuts as one their key components which is also a food that has been used for human consumption since ages. Humans have discovered innumerable nut varieties including Brazil nuts, almonds, pistachios, pine nuts, pecans, walnuts and macadamias with each variety having unique nutrients bestowed upon it. In general, these nuts provide energy, heart-healthy oils, vegetable protein, phenols, phytosterols, flavonoids, resveratrol and bioactive compounds which in combination with vitamin E and selenium serve as antioxidants that have the potential to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF). We have studies showing that tree nut consumption has an inverse association with all-cause mortality and death due to heart disease. Other studies show that nut consumption is linked to healthier levels of CVRF including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides. Read further to understand the impact of tree nuts on heart health.
NHS Prospective Cohort Study
This is a large study starting from 1976 that included 76,364 female nurses aged between 30 and 55 years from 11 different U.S. states. The NHS II commenced in 1989 consisting of 92,946 young female registered nurses aged between 25 and 42 years at baseline. Another cohort study, the HPFS that started in 1986 included 41,526 male health professionals aged between 40 and 75 years. Information regarding medical history, lifestyle and health conditions was collected using questionnaires every 2 years since baseline in all three studies. The primary outcome measure in these studies included major CVD defined as a combined endpoint of myocardial infarction, stroke and fatal CVD. Secondary outcome measures were total CHD (defined as fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction) and total stroke (includes all fatal and non-fatal stroke cases). Dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with over 130 items administered every 2-4 years. During the years 1980 and 1984, the FFQ included a question on how frequently the participants consumed a serving of nuts during the previous year and the options included never or almost never, 1-3 times a month, once a week, 2-4 times a week, 5-6 times a week, once a day, 2-3 times a day, 4-6 times a day and more than six times a day. In the subsequent FFQ, the question on nuts was split into two items-peanuts and other nuts. Walnuts also became a part of the FFQ first in 1998 in the NHS and HPFS and in 1999 in the NHS II. Total nut consumption was considered as the intake of peanuts, other nuts and walnuts.
The NHS, NHS II and the HPSF study had a follow-up period of 28.7, 21.5 and 22.5 years respectively during which a total of 14,136 cases of CVD including 8,390 CHD and 5,910 stroke cases were included. In comparison to those who never consumed nuts those who did consume more frequently were older, had a lower BMI, were less likely to smoke, likelier to exercise and consume more fruits and vegetables. Results showed that:
Nut Consumption Decreases CVD Risk in Patients with Type II Diabetes
We do have studies quoting the benefits of tree nut consumption on heart health but there aren’t many linking its effect on individuals with type 2 diabetes. Individuals with diabetes mellitus at baseline (here participants from the same NHS and HPSF were included) and incident diabetes mellitus at follow-up through 2014 were included excluding those who has CVD or cancer at baseline, reported CVD or cancer before diabetes mellitus diagnosis during follow-up or had missing info on nut consumption at baseline. Hence, only 12,006 women with diabetes mellitus in the NHS and 4211 men with diabetes mellitus in the HPFS group were included.
Dietary intake was analyzed using an FFQ with 131 food items administered every 2-4 years. Question on nut servings was the same as given in the study above. In the subsequent FFQs questions on nuts was split into 2 categories-peanuts and tree nuts such as walnuts, almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, pistachios, pecans, macadamias, hazelnuts and pine nuts. Results showed that a total of 3336 CHD cases (including 2567 CHD cases and 789 stroke cases) and 5682 CVD (including 1663 CVD death and 1297 cancer deaths) were identified. Every serving/week increase in nut consumption was associated with a 3% lower risk of CVD incidence and 6% lower CVD mortality. 1 serving/week increase in tree nut consumption was associated with a 5% lower risk of CVD incidence and 11% lower risk of mortality. In comparison to participants without changes in nut consumption those who increased their nut consumption after diabetes mellitus had a 11% lower risk of CVD, 15% lower risk of CHD, a 25% lower CVD mortality and a 27% lower all-cause mortality. The study clearly shows that frequent consumption of nuts, especially tree nuts was associated with a lower risk of CVD incidence and mortality among participants with diabetes mellitus.
Tree Nut Consumption & CVRF
We don’t have much studies looking at tree nut consumption and CVRF and the study elaborated here focuses on this aspect using data from participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2010. Dietary intake was evaluated using two multiple pass 24-h dietary recall. Height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, SBP, DBP, triglycerides, fasting glucose levels and insulin were determined on subjects. 14,386 subjects participated of which only 755 (6.8%) of them consumed tree nuts. Results showed that tree nut consumers had:
Nuts have a positive effect on heart health in different ways. The unsaturated fat content helps lower LDL (bad) cholesterol levels while increasing HDL (good) cholesterol levels. A group of unsaturated fats found in walnuts, the omega-3 fatty acids also prevents the development of erratic heart rhythm. Omega-3 fatty acids also prevent blood clot. Hence, it is ideal that you include nuts as a part of your daily dietary routine. But simply snacking on them without minding portions can only lead to weight gain down the lane. This weight gain becomes as a risk factor for heart disease rather than offering protective benefits for heart health. European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines lists 30 grams of unsalted nuts per day to be included as a part of a daily diet plan in salads, as a snack or in smoothies to stay healthy. Sticking to guidelines and leading an active life can surely protect us from heart diseases.
Nut Consumption & Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5762129/
Nut Consumption in Relation to Cardiovascular Disease Incidence & Mortality Among Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.118.314316
Tree Nut Consumption is Associated with Better Adiposity Measures and Cardiovascular & Metabolic Syndrome Health Risk Factors: https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12937-015-0052-x
Intake of Partially Defatted Brazil Nut flour Reduces Serum Cholesterol in Hypercholesterolemia Patients: https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12937-015-0036-x
Eating Nuts Linked with Lower Risk of Fatal Heart Attack and Stroke: https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12937-015-0036-x
Sleep is indispensable for health and is a basic human need just like food, clothes and shelter for the survival of human beings. Sleep is a homeostatic process that involves an active and periodic biological state that’s important for physical and mental health still, we don’t pay much attention to it and end up suffering from debilitating side effects. It also helps with stress reduction, circadian rhythms and performance of individuals and despite such benefits we see a steady rise in sleep disorders, insomnia problems and other sleep-related issues in the world population. Studies show that sleep quality and sleep length affect mortality rates and most studies quote 7-8 h of sleep at night as the perfect duration to stave off death risk apart from minimizing risk of diseases such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes and obesity. There are numerous psychological, biological and social factors affecting sleep but topmost of all is diet that remains as one of the most underrated determinant of sleep quality. There are certain studies that show a link between certain nutrients and sleep-foods containing tryptophan raises melatonin levels that are directly linked to regulating sleepiness. Selenium in wholegrains promote longer sleeping hours and shorter sleeping hours is linked to zeaxanthin and lutein that are abundant in green leafy vegetables. There have also been studies showing that functional foods help in rectifying sleep disorder but not even 1% of the population choose to be treated through this means.
We have witnessed an interest in the effects of estrogen on brain functions as this hormone acts on the brain through the same neurotransmitter nerves that are involved in sleep regulation. Hence, we do have research data suggesting that estrogen replacement therapy could be effective against insomnia, nocturnal restlessness and frequent awakening while helping to fall asleep too. Isoflavones are a class of phytoestrogens that have structural similarities to that of 17- β estradiol and a weak estrogenic effect. This phytoestrogen binds to and mediates transcription through estrogen receptors α and β but in the absence of estrogens these isoflavones have a weak estrogenic effect. This also conveys the fact that isoflavones might have beneficial effects on sleep status. A cross-sectional study in Japan identified the effects of isoflavone intake on sleep duration.
Isoflavone Effect on Sleep Duration in Japanese Population
Data from a prospective cohort study was used here where 1833 participants had undergone one of the two health examinations namely lifestyle-related illnesses and health examinations A (this includes blood examinations) or health examination B (does not include blood examination). Those who had undergone lifestyle-related illnesses and health examination A were called to participate in the study and this included 1253 participants. After various exclusion criteria the study was left with 1076 subjects. Dietary intake was measured using a questionnaire that probed into the frequency of intake of 75 food items along with their specified serving size. Isoflavone intake was mostly daidzein and genistein and both of them were found in soybeans. Natto, tofu and fried tofu were the three foods which were predominantly used to measure isoflavone intake and each of the participants revealed the mean frequency of consumption of these foods by checking 1 of 7 frequency categories that was anything among ‘almost never’ to ‘two times a day.’ Nutrient intakes were measured and isoflavone intake was assessed by summarizing them into quartiles: Q1:0-10.96 mg/1000 kcal/day; Q2: 10-97-17.99 mg/1000 kcal/day; Q3: 18.00-26.73 mg/1000 kcal/day and Q4: 26.74-83.06 mg/1000 kcal/day.
Sleep quality and duration was assessed by using questionnaires that included questions such as “How many hours do you usually sleep per day?” for which options provided were <5 h, 5-6h, 6-7h, 7-8h, 8-9h and ≥9h. Further, sleep duration was classified into two classes:7-8 h and <7 h or ≥8 h. Sleep quality was assessed using questions such as “Do you feel refreshed after sleep?” for which options provided was ‘yes’ and ‘no.’ OR ‘Have you used hypnotic drugs in the past month?” and the options again were ‘yes’ and ‘no’. Blood pressure and blood sugar measurements were taken, BMI was measured and metabolic syndrome presence was assessed. Metabolic syndrome was confirmed if the participants had ≥3 risk factors such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, elevated triglycerides, reduced HDL-C and hyperglycemia. Data on all of these were obtained from 1076 subjects of which 143 were classified as having normal sleep duration (7-8h) and 605 (56.2%) were classified as sufficient sleepers with respect to sleep quality. Mean dietary intake of all items (excluding coffee) was significantly high across categories of isoflavone intake. Mean coffee consumption and proportion of subjects who were current smokers were lower across categories of isoflavone intake.
After adjusting for various variables, it was seen that sleep duration increased across categories of isoflavone intake. Those subjects who consumed 26.74-83.06 mg/1000 kcal/d isoflavone in comparison to 10.96 mg/1000 kcal/d of isoflavone had better chances of sleeping for 7-8 h and also their sleep quality was good. The study clearly proves that high doses of isoflavone intake from foods is related to optimal sleep duration (7-8h) and sleep quality. The researchers theorize that the possible effect might be due to estrogen effect on certain neurotransmitters in the brain such as serotonin whose main function is to regulate sleep-wake cycle. Isoflavone might also have an estrogenic effect that benefits sleep quality and it improves cognitive function as well that’s once again related to sleep quality. There are studies that also show that isoflavone intake decreased stress in both men and women aged 22-56 years and antioxidants can improve this. Isoflavones are rich in antioxidants thereby helping in the improvement of sleep quality.
Isoflavone Impact on Post-menopausal Women
Menopause brings about overwhelming changes in the body and lack of sleep is one of them. In a study that followed 12,603 post-menopausal women for 10 years it was found that 46-48% of them suffered from insomnia compared to perimenopausal women (38%). Studies point at hormonal changes in these women to be major factors for such problems and the estrogen is the most commonly associated hormone with sleep patterns. Post-menopausal women sleep more in NREM stage 1,2 and the sleep quality decreases slightly in NREM stage 3 and REM sleep. Estrogen helps in increasing REM sleep, reducing sleep latency, reducing nocturnal awakening and increasing total sleep time.
A study on 169 postmenopausal women showed that isoflavone treatment was effective in improving quality of life and decreasing climacteric symptoms including sleep disturbance. Another randomized controlled study on postmenopausal women with insomnia indicated that there was a notable increase in sleep efficiency in the isoflavone group compared to the placebo group. Despite estrogen’s beneficial effects on sleep quality we have studies reporting that estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) alone will increase risk of stroke and venous thromboembolism. To add to this, in combination with progesterone there is an increase in the risk of breast cancer and heart disease. Though we say that sleep disturbances are a result of hot flashes in post-menopausal women even those women without hot flashes fail to sleep well and sleep long. A study on post-menopausal women was conducted in Thailand. All the volunteers were aged between 45 and 60 years and had a BMI lesser than 30 without history of illness, hormone therapy or substance abuse. The Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality based on scores- a total score of 5 or below implicated good sleep quality and a score above 5 indicated bad sleep quality.
There were eight cases of participants who were divided into two different groups-group 1 had ≥50 mg of isoflavones (1 capsule had ≥25 mg of isoflavones and hence participants here had 1 capsule twice a day) and group 2 had intake ≥100 mg of isoflavones (hence had 2 capsules twice a day). The average score before intake of isoflavones was 12.50 and the score after intake of ≥50 mg of isoflavones was 8 during the 1st week and 5.75 during the second week. The average score before intake of ≥100 mg of isoflavones per day was 14.75 and the score after 1st week of intake was 10.00 and after 2nd week it was 5.75. The study found that isoflavones intake was instrumental in promoting sleep quality but there was no significant difference found between the two groups which had different intake quantities.
Relationship between Daily Isoflavone Intake and Sleep in Japanese Adults: https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12937-015-0117-x
Beneficial Effects of Isoflavones to Post-menopausal Women with Insomnia: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325703862_Beneficial_effect_of_isoflavones_to_post-menopausal_women_with_insomnia_A_preliminary_study
How many of you are fans of the juicy meat that satisfies taste buds as well as hunger? Almost all those who eat animal-based foods, isn’t it? Mankind ate food for energy and well-being long back. But now, the advent of processed foods and food adulteration has made us all wonder whether the food that we eat will do good to our health or affect our very own wellness. We are in such a pathetic state after all! Meat is one of the good sources of protein, vitamins and minerals in the diet when we make the right choices. By right choices, I mean choosing those that are rich in nutrients and low in cholesterol content. Chicken, pork, beef and lamb are rich sources of protein, iron and vitamin B12 but beef, lamb and pork (all of them are red meats) are also high in saturated fat compared to chicken always having the risk of raising blood cholesterol levels. Opting for meats that are high in saturated fat doesn’t go well with the body and even puts it at a risk of heart disease. Taking care of the type of meat that you choose and how you cook can make a big difference to saturated fat content. Ignoring both and consuming more portions than recommended increases the risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, CVD and diabetes mellitus. We do have numerous studies linking meat intake, especially red meat intake with increased risk of weight gain and obesity. Each of the different meat varieties have different macronutrient composition and animal protein, the main macronutrient component of meat, has been linked with weight gain. Contrarily, animal protein also increases satiety levels and there are intervention studies reporting beneficial effects of high protein diets on fat loss and weight maintenance. What we need is to know more about each meat type, its protein content and composition to understand the effect of meat intake and weight changes.
Body composition of each individual is different and evaluating body composition can determine whether weight gain due to meat consumption is due to fat mass, free mass or both. Kids around the world suffer from overweight and obesity issues due to different reasons which includes meat consumption too. Such weight gain during younger stages of life follows the person through adulthood paving way for numerous health problems. Identifying the factors contributing to such weight gain issues and identifying meat as one of the important contributors can go a long way towards preventing overweight issues. Longitudinal studies on the association between meat intake and body composition during adolescence helps in correlating weight gain-related problems as there are increased chances of rapid weight gain at this stage of life.
The longitudinal study in Germany used data from 2 birth cohort studies GINIplus (German Infant Nutritional Intervention plus environmental and genetic influences on allergy development) and LISAplus (Influence of Lifestyle-Related Factors on the Immune System and the Development of Allergies in Childhood plus the Influence of Traffic Emissions and Genetics). The study included healthy full-term newborns and information about these infants were collected using questionnaires and physical examinations. A self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) provided details about dietary intake for a follow-up period of 10 years. All the participants were asked to report estimated frequency and portion sizes of intake of 80 food items in which there were four types of meat types defined namely processed meat (salami, liver sausage, cold meat, bratwurst and wiener- or pork-sausage), red meat (pork, beef, veal), poultry and other meats (offal and ready meals with meat). Each of the meat type’s protein content was calculated and represented in kcal/d. information on daily intake of essential amino acids (EAA), saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was also obtained from the FFQ. Data on total meat intake, intake of individual meat varieties and their protein content was calculated and included in the analysis. Fat mass and fat-free mass values were obtained using which fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) were calculated. Blood samples were obtained using which total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglyceride (TAG) values were measured.
The study included data from 1610 participants (797 females and 813 males) of which 16.7% females and 22.5% males were overweight (according to WHO guidelines) by age 10. Those children who belonged to the highest meat intake tertile were likelier to be overweight by age 10. Consumption of meat and meat protein at age 10 years with FMI and FFMI at 15 years of age was analyzed by linear regression models. Minimally adjusted models (MIN) were first fit after which main models (MAIN) were fit for analysis. Results showed that:
Meat and dairy are two major sources of animal protein and yet another study showed that increased intake of protein from meat as a protein source during puberty was related to a higher FFMI in young adulthood.
Adolescence is the period of maximum growth and the health of kids at this stage definitely has a role in affecting their health in the future. Meat is an excellent source of protein and individuals are welcome to eat meat. But be careful on what type of meat you choose and how you cook it. Go for the leanest options while buying meat. For instance, more white area on a meat denotes more fat such as in the case of streaky bacon compared to back bacon. If you are buying turkey or chicken, get it without the skin as these are lower in fat. Avoid consumption of processed meat products such as sausage, salami and beefburgers as they have higher fat and salt content. While cooking too, grill your meat rather than frying it and avoid adding extra oil. Try using more vegetables and less meat to make the dish healthier.
Prospective Associations of Meat Consumption during Childhood with Measures of Body Composition during Adolescence: https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12937-016-0222-5
Prospective Association of Protein Intake during Puberty with Body Composition in Young Adulthood: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/oby.20516
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