We are not in shortage of fad diets, weight loss programs, fitness centers and supplements to facilitate weight loss in individuals. Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic paving way for numerous chronic disease such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. A disease that was restricted to the upper-class people and developed countries decades back it has become even more prevalent in developing countries, especially in urban settings. Obesity and overweight develop over time when the total calories consumed exceed the calories burned. Such energy imbalance causes the body to store fat. BMI ranges help categorizing people into various categories-those with a BMI ≥25 is termed overweight and those with BMI values ≥30 are obese.
A well-balanced diet, regular physical activity and an active lifestyle are certainly important for staying on a normal weight range. Overweight/obese people trying to lose weight can approach registered dietitian nutritionists for a healthy weight loss chart. A modest weight loss treatment helps individuals lose around 0.5-1.0 kilogram every week. Even a 5-10% decrease in body weight is beneficial for the individual in terms of his/her health quality and well-being. Research shows that most of the weight loss programs help individuals lose at least 10% of initial body weight over 30 weeks. The process is not tedious but needs patience and perseverance. Once the candidate loses weight, he/she is extremely happy but if the person goes back to his/her same old routine involving junk foods and sedentary lifestyles weight regain is inevitable. Helping individuals lose weight and keep it off is an even greater problem. Of all the individuals who lose weight only some are able to lose weight and also maintain the weight loss over a long term. Long-term weight loss maintenance (LTWLM) remains a key challenge and even though a vast portion of the population is trying to lose weight only 17-23% are able to maintain the weight loss.
Getting to know those individuals who are successful in LTWLM, monitoring their behavioral changes and lifestyle can help in developing better intervention methods to support others in maintaining weight loss. Higher levels of physical activity, self-monitoring weight and working out on achieving self-established goals are some of the behavioral strategies used by those who are successful in maintaining their lost weight.
The US National Weight Control Registry (NWCR) has been constantly updating individuals with the weight loss maintenance over the last couple of decades. The Portuguese Weight Control Registry (PWCR) is another voluntary registry that has enabled individuals to lose 5 kg weight and maintain the weight loss for at least 1 year.
Influence of Weekdays/Weekends on Weight Loss Maintenance
Weight loss is indeed a taxing process as we are asked to forego many of the processed foods that satisfy our cravings and taste buds. Gone are the pizzas, khakras, butter biscuits, mithais and chips. In comes the fruits and vegetables. There is a cheat meal that’s allowed once every week in most programs but this does not guarantee that the individual is mentally satisfied with the way he/she consumed food. As of now, we don’t have much evidence on how the diet’s strictness during weekdays and holidays influence long-term weight loss maintenance. But logically, it seems better when we do follow a flexible dietary pattern during weekends and public holidays as this helps us break the monotony, avoid boredom and allow a more realistic approach from a long-term perspective. At the same time, we are paving way for greater chances of loss of control over the diet and deviation away from the goal. We even have research evidence showing that participants who followed the diet on weekends and holidays too had 1.5 times more chances to maintain their weight loss compared to those who skip the diet routine during these special days. The study below aims to understand the consequences of dieting during weekends and holidays comparing to weekdays and the influence it would have on weight loss maintenance in a Portuguese sample of people who were successful in weight loss maintenance.
A total of 108 participants were included in the study from the PWCR with the criteria that all of them were between 18 and 65 years of age and had maintained their 5-kilogram weight loss for over a year irrespective of their initial body weight. At the PWCR, all the participants were given a questionnaire asking to fill their weight history, weight loss and weight maintenance behavioral strategies. Some of the questions asked were:
Long-term Weight Loss Maintenance in United States
The sample size for the study included 14,306 individuals who were selected based on different criteria. Only those whose BMI was not under 25, whose age was neither below 20 nor above 84 and those who had lost weight a year ago and managed to maintain all or some of it were included in the study. The male-female ration was almost equal in the study, 32% reported being in good health, 29.9% reported very good health and 19.5% reported excellent health. Surprisingly, weight loss was a goal only for 1/3rd of the participants despite the fact that almost 82% of them were overweight or obese. Results showed that:
Yet another study showed that weight gain was prominently seen after weekends mostly on Sundays and Mondays and gradually decreased as the week progressed. Changes in weight during weekends is quite logical as most individuals party out or eat junk which automatically increases their chances of weight gain. At the same time, stressing too much overweight changes, being too conscious of every morsel consumed even during weekends and starving yourself is not going to work out. Have a balance, eat just right, don’t overdo portion sizes, exercise daily and keep checking your weight often to keep your LTWLM goal in check. Allowing more flexibility and going easy during weekends and holidays is the best approach as it is realistic and also successful in the long term than sticking to a strict diet plan and losing focus halfway through.
Does diet strictness level during weekends and holiday periods influence 1-year follow-up weight loss maintenance? https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12937-019-0430-x
Weight Increases during Weekends & decreases during weekdays: https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/356147
Long-term weight loss maintenance in the United States: https://www.nature.com/articles/ijo201094?source=your_stories_page---------------------------
Pregnancy brings about joy and happiness in the family. But as the news sets in, the couple and the entire family become concerned about the forthcoming journey until delivery working hard for a healthy pregnancy tenure and the delivery of a healthy baby. No time is too late for starting to lead a healthy life but the sooner, the better! Gearing up for pregnancy by becoming fit and healthy even before conceiving is the best way to safeguard against pregnancy complications but not many women follow this policy. While normal-weighted women may face pregnancy-related complications during the pregnancy course the risks are even higher for overweight/obese women. Obesity-related health conditions such as cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney diseases and type 2 diabetes are becoming more prominent with the ever-increasing obesity epidemic.
Hyperglycemia is the commonest metabolic disorder that paves way for aplenty pregnancy complications. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is any degree of glucose intolerance that’s first identified or whose onset happens during pregnancy. It also includes the possibility that glucose intolerance could have started the same time as pregnancy and almost 7% of pregnant women face this complication during their pregnancy. The prevalence rates are between 1 and 14% depending on the population. GDM is usually detected at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation on the basis of elevated plasma glucose levels on glucose tolerance testing. There is an increase in supply of glucose from the mother to her fetus during fetal growth and development. This stimulates the pregnant mom to develop insulin resistance to enable mother-fetus passage of glucose. There is not much of a change in insulin resistance during the first or second trimesters. But midway through the second trimester insulin requirements increase by 2.0- to 2.5-fold to optimize blood glucose levels of the pregnant mother and keeps her away from hyperglycemia. GDM is a condition that occurs when maximal insulin secretion cannot match the degree of insulin resistance. Hyperglycemia during pregnancy can have debilitating effects on the mother and the fetus increasing the risk of hypertension, pre-eclampsia, pre-term deliveries, macrosomia, fetal trauma, fetal hypoglycemia and low Apgar score. But the relationship between maternal GDM and the offspring’s risk of hypertension has been inconclusive. We have studies showing that offspring of moms with GDM had higher mean values of systolic blood pressure (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) than children of those without GDM. Certain other studies showed no difference in BP readings between those with/without GDM.
Large-scale Study on the Risk of Hypertension in Kids whose Mothers Suffered from GDM
The study happened in China which included 578 non-GDM mother-child pairs and 578 children of mothers with GDM. All basic information about the mothers and their children were collected in the form of questionnaires. Height, weight, BMI and blood pressure measures were taken of all the participants involved in the study. In accordance with WHO guidelines, children’s BMI was classified as normal weight when BMI <85th percentile, overweight when BMI was >85th percentile and <95th percentile, and obese when BMI>95th percentile. Blood pressure measurements were declared to be high when SBP and/or DBP ≥90th percentile but <95th percentile in kids. Kids were called hypertensive when SBP and/or DBP ≥95th percentile. All analyses were adjusted for maternal age, gestational age, education, current smoking and treatment of GDM; kid’s outdoor activity time, vegetable and fruit intake frequency, screen watching time, sleep time and Z score for BMI-for-age. Mothers with GDM were older at the time of delivery, had higher pre-pregnancy BMI and also had less weight gain during pregnancy compared with women without GDM. They also had a higher birth weight, higher Z score for BMI, less sleeping time and were mostly overweight/obese compared to kids of mothers who did not have GDM. The mean value of age of the kids involved in the study was 5.9 years. Results showed that:
In Utero Exposure to Hyperglycemia Increases Risk of Blood Pressure Later in Life
The study here analyzed the relationship between maternal GDM, offspring adiposity and systolic blood pressure at the child’s three years of age. A total of 1,238 mother-child pairs were involved in the study where the mothers were generally older and had a lower mean pre-pregnancy BMI. All of the women were tested for GDM and those who tested positive were suggested to meet a nutritionist who corrected their diet, exercise and checked on their fasting blood sugar daily.
The child’s blood pressure readings were taken five times during a single visit. 1,020 infants had 5 measurements, 62 had 4, 28 had 3, 30 had 2 and 33 had 1 for a total of 5,525 measurements. The study used only systolic blood pressure readings and not diastolic pressure readings to predict later occurrence of blood pressure. Mother’s pre-pregnancy weight and height, paternal weight and height, smoking status, household income, paternal hypertension, history of diabetes, presence of GDM in the mother’s mother and paternal height and weight were noted down in the form of a questionnaire. Mean maternal age was 32 years and BMI 24.6. It was observed that 51% mothers suffered from GDM and an additional 152 (12%) of them from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). It was also seen that these mothers were older and had higher pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain compared to those without GDM. Also, these moms mostly had a family history of DM and GDM.
At 3 years, children of those mothers with GDM had higher systolic blood pressure compared to those whose mothers did not suffer from gestational diabetes, almost 3.2 mmHg higher. Maternal IGT did not affect offspring blood pressure in any way.
Generally, woman with overweight/obesity, those who don’t do much physical activity, lead a sedentary lifestyle and have a family history of diabetes or moms with GDM are at a greater risk of suffering from GDM during pregnancy. Hence, every woman in her reproductive age is suggested to lead an active lifestyle that helps her maintain a healthy body weight and remain devoid of any health issues to sail through pregnancy smoothly and deliver a perfectly healthy baby. Though the relationship between maternal GDM and infant high blood pressure might seem inconclusive it is sure that those with maternal GDM are in for pregnancy related complications and high blood pressure in infants is also one of those.
Maternal Gestational Diabetes is Associated with Offspring’s Hypertension: https://academic.oup.com/ajh/article/32/4/335/5281125
Gestational Diabetes and the Offspring: Implications in the Development of the Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome in Offspring: https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/337734
Intrauterine Exposure to Gestational Diabetes, Child Adiposity & Blood Pressure: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2761640/
Music is medicine for many of us in times of loneliness, stress, distress, failure and setbacks. It is also a way to express our joys and happiness in life. Research has it that we love to listen to different kinds of music-peppy songs when we are in joy, emotional ones when sad or motivating ones in times of failure-depending on our moods and there are studies supporting and denying the fact that music improves cognitive abilities of the brain. Rather than the user trying to search for songs that suit his/her mood how good would it be when a system recommends a list of songs depending on our current emotional state? Extremely helpful putting us in the right frame of mind! The patent invented here is an intelligent music system that suggests a playlist of songs depending on our emotional state of mind.
The system designed here has at least one bio-signal sensor that’s configured to capture bio-signal sensor data from at least one user. Bio signals are signals that are generated by biological beings that can be measured and monitored. Human brains generate bio-signals such as electric patterns that are measured or monitored using an EEG. The system provided here is one with a database that’s built of a user’s EEG response to certain musical streams. Along with additional information such as the user’s preferred music genre, personality questions and demographic information the system recommends a personalized music list which is solely based on the user’s emotional state and the desired state of the user. Hence, the system designed here responds with a particular music or song depending on the emotion experienced by the user and the system might even start playing the music instantly. While the user has access to many songs in the database there might be scenarios in which user does not have access to play certain music and the system might suggest ways in which the song might be accessed (through purchase or third-party service). The music and the bio-signal database of songs and emotions might be stored in a local computer or on multiple servers (such as in the cloud).
Music is universal and there are no language barriers to love it. People listen to music with different goals in mind-to surpass boredom and be attentive while studying or driving, influence their emotional state with a goal of achieving a desired mood state such as happiness, excitement and sadness or to involve pleasure generally. Users might also be questioned to determine the type of person he/she is and the type of music the person would prefer listening to. Questions asked might include: Think of a song that makes you feel sad; What was your favorite song when you were in love? Think of a song that makes you feel like dancing. Individuals might respond with answers such as: I love sad music or I hate sad music, I work harder than what others think, I’m an emotional person or I don’t get emotional about things, I am slightly shy or I love hanging out with friends. Such questions and answers are additional data that don’t simply rely on the EEG data alone. But the present invention goes beyond asking questions that help judging a personality-it uses bio-signal data and the invention adds EEG data of the user as additional training data to songs that have been labelled as evoking a particular emotion either through the user reporting the emotion via any of the questions or statements above or by tagging a song manually.
The type of song we like to hear depends on us. Some of us listen to sad songs when we are sad while some others listen to happy songs when sad. Intense emotional music releases dopamine in the pleasure and reward centers of the brain just like the effects of food, drugs and sex. This makes us feel good and repeat the behavior. Likewise, more the emotions a song provokes greater is our interest in listening to the song. Some also cry to let off stress and elevate mood. The present invention also determines the user’s emotional response after some time (maybe after 5 seconds) once the music starts to play. The user’s emotional response is fetched throughout playback of the song and the response is associated with the playback position of the song. While EEG might not be the one-stop solution for recognizing all the emotions it is still extremely good at noticing changes in the brain’s state. EEG measures a series of responses to stimuli that occur in the brain. EEG can recognize responses associated with feelings such as recognition, novelty, error, sleepiness, calm and focused attention. The invention here doesn’t stop with detecting these emotions but has the provision to add more sensors to detect data not available in the brain or to also incorporate data from other sensors on other devices that a user is also wearing. While an EEG can sense a negative response to stimuli it is quite difficult for the system to learn what generated this negative response. By providing the prediction based on EEG results the user now has a chance to reject the system’s prediction and correct it with their own experience. In this way, accuracy in predicting emotions can be improved. The patent was published on October 22nd, 2015 and for more details about the patent please visit the following websites:
United States Patent & Trademark Office:http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.html&r=2&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=%22brain-state+data%22&s2=stephanie&OS=%22brain-state+data%22+AND+stephanie&RS=%22brain-state+data%22+AND+stephanie
European Patent Office: https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?DB=EPODOC&II=0&ND=3&adjacent=true&locale=en_EP&FT=D&date=20151022&CC=US&NR=2015297109A1&KC=A1
World Intellectual Property Organization: https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=US152774732&_cid=P20-JYFQUM-28038-1
Small bowel obstruction (SBO) calls for surgical emergency most common in the elderly population and its mortality (10%) and morbidity rates are also high. SBOs are generally the result of scar tissue, hernia or cancer. It is more common in developing countries accounting for 1-8 death per 1,00,000 population per year. SBO is the cause for 50% emergency laparotomies every year in the UK and over 3,00,000 admissions in the USA. In the US, most admissions for SBO are due to the effect of prior surgeries. Surgery for SBO primarily depends on the cause of the obstruction-some are treated without operation and others are operated for intestinal ischemia. While SBO in developed countries is due to intra-abdominal adhesions (in 75%b cases) followed by hernia, Crohn’s disease, malignancy and volvulus SBO in low- and middle-income countries is due to hernia (30-40%), adhesions (about 30%) and tuberculosis (10%) apart from Crohn’s disease, volvulus and parasitic infections. Bowel obstruction might be partial or complete where partial bowel obstruction allows some liquid and gas to pass through the point of obstruction but complete obstruction restricts any passage of bowel content.
Almost 10-12% patients above the age of 65 reporting abdominal pain at the emergency department are confirmed with small bowel obstruction and, emergency surgeries in elderly population is associated with high mortality and morbidity compared to elective operations. Those patients treated in a non-operate manner mostly have zero intake via mouth for days together while patients after surgery suffer from varying degrees of postoperative ileus. Such restrictions (going without food intake via mouth) can have debilitating effects on the patient who is already a high-risk candidate for malnutrition risk. Malnutrition is bad and even more profound in those with acute intestinal failure due to SBO. It would be helpful in assessing the prevalence rates of malnutrition and management options.
Nutritional Balance in Patients with SBO
The study included all UK hospitals undertaking emergency general surgery and adults over 18 suspected for SBO excluding those who were diagnosed with non-mechanical SBO, left colonic obstruction causing SBO or those managed with palliative intent for admission were not included in the analysis. Various details were noted such as period spent without consuming anything via mouth prior to admission in the hospital, body mass index, interval between last enteral intake and re-introduction of eating via mouth and nutritional supportive interventions were recorded. Nutritional Risk Index (NRI) was noted down using ideal body weight, current weight and admission albumin and patients were put into three different groups depending on NRI values-low risk (NRI >97.5), moderate risk (NRI 83.5-97.5) and severe risk (NRI<83.5).
On execution of all conditions for inclusion in the study, a total of 2604 patients from 131 hospitals were included in the study. Here again patients were excluded based on few criteria (such as end-of-life care and not meeting study criteria) finally leaving the study with 2069 patients for analysis. Almost 30% patients were taken to surgery within 24 hours of admission, 22% were operated after being tried on non-operative procedures and 47.9% were treated in a non-operative fashion. All the patients had three things in common-all of them had a mean average age of 67, a small number of them were females and postoperative adhesions were the common cause of SBO. Results showed that 81.6% patients were assessed for malnutrition either by gauging with a screening tool or clinical judgement. 84.6% were assessed for malnutrition in comparison to 78.6% in the non-operative group. Among those whose NRI scores identified them as having moderate risk 36.4% got the help of a dietitian and the average time of review was 6.4 days. Those whose NRI scores showed severe risk had 55.9% of them reviewed by a dietitian and the average time for review was 4.5 days. Those in the low risk group had only 1 review every week with the dietitian.
The nutritional interventions taken also depended on the NRI value. Among those in the low risk group only 30.3% patients received a nutritional intervention, 40.7% of them in moderate risk group got nutritional interventions and 62.7% in the severe risk group received the same. Higher and moderate NRI values indicated higher risk of malnutrition. Also, these were the ones who had severe or moderate risk of malnutrition at 4.2 and 2.4 times higher unadjusted risk of in-hospital mortality versus those in the low risk group. Severe and moderate risk patients were likelier to develop deliriums, infections and also had higher chances of re-operations. On a comparison, those patients in severe risk group who underwent a surgery were at a lower risk of hazard compared to those who were treated in a non-operative manner. The minimum time taken to initiate food intake orally was at least 1 week where operative treatment procedures usually took more time for oral feeding compared to non-operative ones.
Almost one third of patients with acute SBO are at risk of malnutrition and this risk is associated with poorer outcomes. There are also chances that the patient is judged to be well-nourished while being admitted to the hospital but might later go on to develop malnutrition. The same happened in this study where 28% patients in the low-risk group were judged to have malnutrition and 12% ended up receiving parenteral nutrition. It is recommended to go for oral nutritional supplements when the patient is at risk of malnutrition and parenteral nutrition when there is no oral intake for more than 5 days. The risk here is that malnutrition might be detected at early stages of SBO but it is not readily correctable through conventional enteral interventions due to compromise of intestinal function. Gastrointestinal failure prevents nutritional improvement and absorption which prevents adequate calorie intake. This shows that SBO is highly prevalent in the SBO patients, even diagnosis rates are higher but preventive methods and nutritive programs are not much in place to treat it.
Malnutrition, nutritional interventions and clinical outcomes of patients with acute small bowel obstruction: https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/9/7/e029235
AVOID FRAUD. EAT SMART
+91 7846 800 800